CAHARCTERISTIC PECULARITIES AND REASONS OF CREATION OF YOUTH CULTURE
Youth is a period of age differed by dynamism, orientations of value and subjecting to physicological changes. In accordance with dividing into periods of age of world -wide scientists young people are those who are from 16 till 35. Generally speaking youth is initial stage of adolescence, youthfulness and a period of medium. By speedily growth of mental and physical facilities, young peoples joining in early social and labour activities, by increasing of juridical responsibilities, motions and behaviors, being known and entrusting their independence by society age qualification has been lowered.
In early years people have different problems about education, labour, sport and law because of acceleration (lat acceleration-acceleration) speedily growth of mental facilities. In early years increasing of weight, measure, energy of human body clashes with social and sphere of ethics. In 100-150 years growth of physiology maturing and somatism on children and teenagers is notified on anthropology by term of «acceleration». In the broad sense acceleration is changing growth of somatic time and measures of human body as long as one lives. It is specially paid attention to physiology acceleration problems in scientific literature. Physiology acceleration- is accelerating mental facilities.
There have been various theories, instructions and opinions about acceleration in science. Thus according to the theory by western scientists acceleration- is degenerative process that prevents growth of human about physiology and social aspects. Irresponsibility of young people in front of society and their helpless in life causes of social invention. Certainly beginnings of these opinions have not been without reasons.
But at the same time we should notify that those scientists did not pay attention to young peoples formation social and social-cultural environment.
On other theories privatizations of youth are valued from the standpoint of the scientific -technical progress. It is noted that speedily growth of young peoples intellectual faculties are the reason of progress of science and technique. According to them mind only reason for these are logical opinions, abilities easily using of thoughts and categories are formed on young people in early years. But according to the meaning there have been conflicting aspects on these theories. According to other specialists minds to know is not being able to think and perceive. Such situations will be able to make impressions like narrow-mindedness, practisizm, dileotantizm and literary illusion.
Thus there have been some hypothesizes about the reasons of acceleration on scientific literature . Acceleration of human importance is still being learned.
It is interesting, does speedily physical and intellectual progress cause to early social, civil and moral maturity? Are young people able to behave themselves in society at the present day? Can they repulse negative leaps and being capable of endurance? Are they able to bear responsibility for their actions and behaviors? Are young people able to perceive and understand other peoples opinions, their anxiety and position?
While looking for the answers to these questions this is being clarified that knowledge, especially humanitarian knowledge is connected with morality and spirit. Maturity of spirit depends on mental tenderness, education and culturel level. Experience proves that early physical and intellectual growth is not the main factor of spiritual, earlier , social and civil maturity.
Peculiarities of age definite the attitude to young peoples culture and being realized themselves.
As a characteristic feature a sensitive, emotional attitude of young people is being presented on this process. That process turns out only then while cognizing deeply cultural information by youth. Trying to be like those who in most cases has not been accepted by society but young peoples lovely play images, fictitious cumirs and share their anxiety is visual proof for it. This event is typical feature belonging to young people of every generation.
Physiology of age notifies that young people prefer dynamism of actions and plots of events. Profound and intellectual plays are incomprehensible for youth in most cases.
According to this they prefer watching heroic films and films about adventure movies. Besides these young people prefer plays and forms of cultural activities on a large scale by effecting rich sphere of emotion and sense. According to psychologists conclusions the reason mentioned above is connected with young peoples excited behaviors and actions on the squares of concert and sport halls.
According to these reasons while analysis of literature young people prefer the valuation of spirit and moral ethics to aesthetic approach.
In broad contest young peoples cognizing of moral is presented like a main feature of realization themselves. This situation is displayed in inphantism in accordance not being exigent, their actions and behaviors on the other hand intolerance to others.
According to the of Russian specialist of cultural sociology M.I.Mikhaylovs opinion youth is seeking for not only emotional-moral beginning but also amusing table of contests in culture. Other events of rock and mass culture empedes to effection of formation of intellectual level of personality. According to his mind researches of emotional -moral and amusing table of contests and behaviors with characteristic stereotype group in culture is accompanied by process of realization themselves. On the basis of this there is youth and the same age peoples behaving against with old generation "strangers" (in most cases includes teachers and parents) And direction to identification with group that they are on terms.
Experiment shows that though young people dont want to be like adults in another case they dont know that they are going to be like each other including the group they are connected with loosing their individualism and the state of being unique around the company. As an example of stereotype group fashionable dresses are preferred without showing individualism of formation of their personality and being bought different things for the prestige arent the state of being provided spirit of demands (book, musical instruments).
Stereotype groups especially show themselves protuberantly on unformal education of youth. According to the specialists mind solitude, fear and probability Of being isolated from the people of the same age and distorted imaginations about friendship unit them. Being together with theirs by fashion and different symbols, escape from the second class, useless, the state of being outcast is distinctive for unformal unity of youth.
It is explained by weekly formation of youth, their education, imagination, value, actions and standards of behaviors not being tanned for youth.
So, besides emotional-moral self-affirmation researching of amusing contests are characterized under the influence of attitudes of stereotype groups, interests, norms, values.
Returning to the main part of the theme if we generalize all things mentioned above we come to such conclusion that some characteristic features let us value culture of young people like the event of subculture. Culture of young people differs from official culture and subcultures not only for education but also for aims the way of thought and value, fashion, customs, taste and behaviors.
Culture of young people is a particular cultural autonomist that is being molded of personality.
Subculture of youth is being formed under the influence of culture of adults. Without exception just culture of adults settle subculture of youth as a display of counterculture. According to the definition of cultural investigators formal culture of youth lays down the foundation on the values of mass culture, social policy of the state and official ideology. Modern determination of these components and being estimated their role in their world outlook are possible while analysis of subculture that was modified one of the aims of our presented half-chapter.
Thus a characteristic feature that prevails on subculture of youth is amusing -reactive tendentiousness. Thus to the general mind of investigators free- time gradually becomes the main sphere of youth. Young people have gotten independence while they are having free-time out of schools where they are getting education, the places where they are working. To the main elements of young people free-time includes relaxation, active-physical activity, enlighten, self-education, thoughts, holidays, observation, creative work. More characteristic features for young people are considered intercourse, entertainment.
The realization of communicative, aesthetic, emotional, cognitive, amusing function of culture and free-time is particular for subculture of young people. Culturolog-scientist pedagogical candidate of science, senior Maral Manaphova often notifies in her articles that" the state of continuously being enlightened of people, and being benefited with attributes including to cultural nations" in her articles.
The free time mainly performs recreative function along with communicative function. According to the conclusion of M.Manaphova, the indifference to the culture of free time can cause the increase of number in cultural wildness, crime, drug addition, alcoholism and other disformities in the society. According to him, there stand the problems of sociology, psychology, ethics and aesthetics of free time along with the pedagogical problems behind the conception of "free time". (1,16-18)
In the opinion of experts, the reactive function of free time is carried out via television and radio broadcasting which mainly fosters the values of mass culture. However, in our opinions, the problems of free time should be evaluated not only as the components of social culture but also as the components of wider conception of humanity in modern time.
The forms of aesthetic education are rich and different. The aesthetic function of culture must serve one aim - to bring up young people who own high morality, developed comprehensively and not only satisfied with merely understanding beauty but at the same time, are able to build their life basing upon the "laws of beauty". The process how the young people form their moral faces, is closely connected with the fact that how and in what level they use their free time.
It is appropriate to mention the formula of Fuad Mammadov, the culturologist-scientist and professor, on formation of personality here. In his conclusion, morality, education, social environment, genetic code and character are the five main universal factors of personality. In F.Mammadovs opinion, "the system of cultural values and national traditions have great importance in the formation of personality. The difference of personalities is specified with the inexact logical law of Lutvi-Zade" (2, 76).
And one of the typical peculiarities which characterize the youth culture is their rejection the cultural values, ideals and examples of old generation. This event has continued for centuries. Just for the same reason, the subculture of new young people formed in different historical phases, emerged as "counterculture" against the existing culture with their ideals, fashion, way of speaking and behavior and art. The youth culture is accepted as the collective event consisted of the culture with negative character and for example, metallists, extremists, etc. in the massive sense. Despite of the fact that the majority of young people have been directed to common sense and positive activity.
The cultural need and "westernization" (Americanizing) of interests are one of the factors which characterize the youth culture. In recent years, like the values of classic and folk culture, the values of national culture are also forced out by the stereotypes of massive culture and imparted the patterns of "American like lifestyle". The fact that "heroes of soap orchestras" become the idols of most young people can be the bright example for it. But the processes of westernization are not finished with it and they cover larger spheres. Such as, the feature characters are brought to the individual and group levels and appear in the peculiarities of social behavior like pragmatism, cruelty and desire of limitless welfare.
The same tendencies are reflected in the cultural self-realization of young people, too. In recent years, the values like respect, politeness, mildness and kindness which are considered "outdated", are accepted by most of the young people with humiliation in accordance with fashion.
One of the main features of youth culture in modern time is the fact that consumption prevails over the creative production (creative activity). The consumption has an important role in the development of personality culture. But in real sense of a word, the assimilation of cultural values only takes place in active and independent activity. The results of researches show that the consumption of cultural values by the youth takes even the second place but the creative activity takes the tenth place for students in free time. In the opinion of the Russian scientist L.I.Mikhayilov, "the personality and society themselves caused the superiority of consumption over the creative activity. The tendency for consumption doesnt only appear in indifference to artistic. Scientific and technical creativity, this case emerges in the life position, too... Such kind of attitude towards life deals with infantilism appeared in incorrect system of education a family and society give to young children" (3, 124).
The researches show that the cultural consumption emerge in socio-cultural and evristical aspects. In the scientists opinions, the consumption tendencies in the field of artistic culture prevail in comparison with the creative activity in the field of socio-cultural activity. The same tendencies are mostly discovered in the self-realization process of educating students in the cultural field. In the conclusion of the researchers, the main reason for it is the flow of cultural information which is the value of massive culture, generally perceived in the mind and strengthened superficially there. The creative self-realization mainly emerges in marginal forms.
It is true that in the period in which many changes occurred in the society, the ideal of an educated person has transformed in recent years, too. According to many specialists, the mankind has the task of fostering children, teenagers and young people for real love and educating people who are hardworking, physically and morally healthy, active and able for independent activity before it. Young people lead their active life in modern time. But the same activeness itself has been directed to the consumption, too.
The fact that the youth culture has low level of individuality and choice ability is one of the actual problems of the day. The reason why people prefer to this or that kind of values in the society, is related to group stereotypes in most cases. The people, especially young people experience the fear of being "unnecessary", "dull" and "vagrant" in the society. It is the usual dictated requirement of the "mass" to resemble to an "idol" chosen by a certain group of people. The group stereotype and hierarchy of values are the factors defamed with the level of education, place of living and national affiliation. Their essence is revealed with non-acceptance of cultural conformism, other values and stereotypes in the communication of the members of informal groups. The groups created by students and school children as well as "gangs" whose members the roles and status are determined with severe rules as an aggressive form, can be quoted as the same emergence forms of the sub-culture of young people.
The observations which we conducted during the research, showed that the realization of free time of young people is mostly implemented outside of cultural institutions, especially through institutional means - television which has the most influential factor from the point of socialization and aesthetics. In other words, non-institutional cultural self-realization is characteristic to the sub-culture of young people in modern time.
And one of the most salient points is the case of deprivation of ethno-cultural self-identification in the sub-culture of young people. Such as, folk culture (that is, our customs and traditions, folklore, etc.) are accepted as anachronism by certain groups of young people. While the young generation is socialized today, the propaganda of ancient folk customs and traditions as well as our Islam values are preferred more in an attempt to foster the ethno-cultural contents. It shouldnt be forgotten that though the ethno-cultural self-identification is massive, it doesnt only consist of one Convention but also of the historical past, the traditions of our people and in other words, it fosters love for "Motherland".
Of course, there are the main reasons for the formation of typical properties of sub-culture of the youth we analyzed in modern time. The young people live in social and cultural place. Just for the same reason, the crisis of the society and its main institute couldnt have kept from influencing the contents and tendency of the sub-culture of young people. In our opinion, the main task of social culturologists is to prepare programs on special young people and social-adaptation. Because every interference with socialization process will directly collide with the condition of social institutes and first of all, education system, cultural institutions and mass media of the society. The society is the mirror of young people.
The crisis of a family and an institute on family education, prevention of individuality and initiative of a child, a teenager and a young person by their parents, teachers and representatives of "adult" world, can cause social and cultural infantilism on one hand and pragmatism, social non-adaptation and even appearance of cases with extremism character on the other hand. The education in aggressive manner can cause aggressive youth.
The commercialization of mass media and artistic culture in certain meaning, forms the "copy" of sub-culture of the youth together with family and education system which are the other agents of socialization. As we know, just watching TV programs is one of wide-spread forms of the organization of free time along with communication. We think that the sub-culture of young people is simply the repetition of television sub-culture which forms self-characteristic viewers for their most peculiarities. We shouldnt forget that the sub-culture of young people is the distorted mirror of the events, relations and values of the "adult" world. The effective cultural self-realization of the youth is only possible in sound society. If we consider that the cultural welfare of other age and social-demographic groups of Azeri population is observed to be being developed day-by-day, it is a deniable fact that there exist the spectra of great perspectives and opportunities before the youth.
In the researchers opinions, the sub-culture of the youth lived their progress periods in the 90th of XX and ended in the middle of 90th. The activeness of the youth subOculture experiences a new period today. The research of the problems before the youth on the basis of the experience of past years and even their solution within the opportunity assumes actuality. The self-realization, self-actualization, misunderstanding by the old generation, entering maturity age, choosing of right way and so on, are the kinds of problems which constitute the target of learning. According to the experts, the humanitarization of training and education institutes which are one of the main components of all spheres of public life in the settlement of stated problems, especially socialization of personality, assumes great importance. We think that the issues of changing of humanitarian education institution to strong branch of socialization and priority development direction, are one of the actual problems of the day.
1. Manafova.M., Family and free time // "Madani-maarif journal, No. 3-4, 1993, p.l6-18.
2. Mamedov F.T. Culturology as the way for effective life activity. Baku: "Abilov, Zeynalov and sons", 2006, p.576;
3. Mikhailova L.I. Sociology of culture. Textbook, M. FAIR-PRESS, 1999, p. 232;
4. Sikevich Z.V. Culture of youth: "for" and "against": Notes of the sociologist, L.Leninzat, 1990, p. 204.