CLASSIFICATION OF AZERBAIJANI POPULAR DANCES FR
As it is obvious, variety of tempos, variants in creating two-three parted form of yalli are given more attention. For instance, tempo rank like first "Andante", then "Moderato" and final "Allegro" creates three parted form. "Moderato"- "Allegro" or
"Andante-Moderato" (“Tanzara”) alternation provides creation of two parted form.
Rings are widely spread in the southern region - Lankaran, Masalli, Lerik, Astara- of Azerbaijan.
As we have already mentioned ring dances are vocal-choreographic ranges from genre viewpoint. It is formed of several dance songs alternating by orders. It is performed by two groups. Welfare, labor, love, family and etc. are the contents of a ring (7).
It is known from the history that rings were formed connected with welfare and labor. They gradually were connected with wedding and other ceremonies. Thus songs of other kinds are included in the constitutional part of rings and the range is being increased (both its content and form). For instance, "Khonchaya duzdum nogulu, badami", "Verin bizim gelini"," A bivafa daglar". These songs are very simple from melodic and structure viewpoint as they are very old. Along with the mass dancing songs as "Zupo", "Jahribayim", "Mahni deyak", "Deyishma" ring dancing songs are widely. spread in the wedding ceremonies of the regions as Lankaran, Lerik, Astara, Masalli , as well.
In contrast to Turkish folk dance (yalli) performers of rings are divided into groups. They stand front to front and one group repeats the singing and movement of the other group. Rings are sung by women. The women joined in the groups consisted of 6-8 or 20-30 persons are usually accompanied by drum and sometimes double drums.
Formation of polyphonic element in rings rouses interest, i.e. our southern region had the tradition to sing in chorus since old times (in the manner of unison). The first line of the song is lengthened by the singers of the first group and the same line is repeated by the singers of the second group. Such singing reflects polyphonic imitation.
The words of a ring are sung by the singers of both groups by order.
Notwithstanding the most important factor is that the songs included in the range of ring is completed with joint dance and singing of both groups. Ring samples as "Yordu, yordu" and "Hasri basma, dolan gel" are sang in the form of dialogue.
We come across the ideas regarding the classification and genre nature of Yalli in the preface in the collection (8) of A. Isazada and N. Mammadov called "Azerbaijani popular songs and dance music" i.e. there is an idea about the performance of Yalli that the separate kinds of Yalli are known by two feet, three feet, four feet and etc. names for the number of steps.
Yalli is performed by both men and women groups, separately or jointly. Folk poems -, goshma and bayati forms are reflected in these Yallis. Its reason is that only in Nakhichevan Yalli live as music and dance, but in other regions of Azerbaijan Yalli is accompanied instrumentally.
There are dances of sport and ceremony content along with the dances of lyrical, epic, funny and heroic spirit in the collection. Yallis begin with heavy movements and gradually rhythmic variations take speedy character. All of these ideas correspond to the genre classification we noted above.
The study of Azerbaijani dancing art particularly Yallis, halays and dances stands in the focus of attention of choreographs along with musicians. It is worth to mention Kamal Hasanovs study called "Azerbaijani old folklore dances" (9). The said book gives detailed information about ceremony dances with a plot and dances (1-st chapter), Yallis formed in Nakhichevan and Ilich (Shahbuz) regions (2 -st chapter) and yallis an general dances (3-st chapter) formed in other regions of Azerbaijan.
As K. Hasanov mentioned our old dances were with a plot. Most of them have been forgotten. It become possible to restore a number of dances in the result of Kamal Hasanovs, choreograph, dancer, efforts. "Finjan-finjan", "Maral Oyunu", "Kosa-geIin", "Kilimarasi", "Gitgilida" and etc. dances of this kind are notable.
The scientific article of the author shown in the introduction of "Azerbaijani folk dances" collection (10), which was put to music and printed by Rauf Bahmanll, is notable. R. Bahmanli gives detailed information about the formation old dance names. He investigating the gentle music tongue, performance mode (either instrument or dancer) and content of our variegated dances divides them into several groups. Rauf Bahmanli shows 9 groups in the devising of dances:
The dances connected with the names of the historical territories of Azerbaijan are included in the first group. The dances included in the second group are given the names connected with the flora and fauna of Azerbaijan. The dances connected with the names of precious stones, jewelry and ornamental items relate to the third group. Life dances connected with labor and economy include in the fourth group. Dances with heroic and courage symbol are included in the fifth group. Dances connected with holidays and weddings are included in the sixth group. Dances connected with various ceremonies are included in the seventh group. Dances connected with human names are related to the eighth group. Funny dances are included in the ninth group (10; p. 10).
Though R. Bahmanli guided by the classification of Bayram Huseynli he systematized dances somehow in a difference way. The dances connected with the names, flora and fauna, jewel, ornamental and decoration items of the historical areas of Azerbaijan are shown by B. Huseynli as dances of various content.
R. Bahmanli mentioned the field where the dances were applied. For instance, the following dances were used .as a color: "Marjani","Almazi", "Mikhayi", "Bakhtavari" ; and as light music: "Dilijan", "Gafgazi", "Ashkhabadi", "Darvishi", "Darbandi"; dances used as daramad are as follows: "Shalala", "Hangama mey", "Selami". The names of our several songs and dances are also given:"Gulgazi", "Kasma", "Shusha", "Daghistan" and others (10i p.16).
Thus, guided by the provisions reflected in studies we can come to the conclusion that the systematization and classification of folk dances from various aspects has been accepted: for performance nature, for accompaniment and for subject. We would like to generalize the provisions on genre classification of folk dances below:
Azerbaijani dances are divided into man and woman dances from performance viewpoint. The dances of men are distinguished by heroism and courage and the dances of women by its nicety and kindness. And this is somehow connected with the differentness of woman and man character on the one hand and on the other hand with life mode and wearing style. Women could not be quick with their bodies and feet in any harmony because of their long clothes and therefore they proffered the nicety of hand movements. Naturally mens free movements with high energy and technique and correctness of their body showed its influence.
Azerbaijani people create and immortalize its unique dances, performing mode, movement lexis for thousand years. Our people have dances danced in common, both solo and duet dances.
Along with the dances performed by children, women and men there are many colored dances as dance-performance, dance-game, dances performed by old people, competition between ashugs-duet dances, competition, dances of joke character, dances with puppet and etc.
Temp plays special role in the classification of dances. Dances of calm temp are fit for old men and women, dances with lyric spirit moderate character are for men and women and dances of speedy temp, virtuous movement are fit for young girls and boys.
There are divisions of dances for accompaniment, as well. The accompaniment of dances was historically vocal, vocal and instrumental and instrumentally.
The most spread accompanying ensemble is consisted of two zournas and drums. Sometimes ensemble is consisted of two balaban players and one drum. The master zourna player performs the melody, the first one is accompanist (accompaniment with burdon) and “kos”ist revives figures of various rhythms.
Sometimes sound and rhythmic accompaniment is done by clasping hands, giving a fillip and kicking.
Instrumental music melodies are performed by pipe, back pipes, zourna, balaban and etc.