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Music education


Author: Elnara DADASHOVA                   City : Baku   Country : Azerbaijan

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Many-numbered patterns of the ceremony dances are related with diffe- rent points of wedding.

Ashugs, singers, saz and zourna players are invited to wedding parties in cities and villages. Horse-race is organized, rope-dancers, wrestlers show their ability. All of these plays and competitions are accompanied by instrumental dance music.

Humorous dance melodies are also met in wedding parties. For instance, "Mazali raqs ("Comical dance"), Qitqilida are of this type. These dances are performed solo {single) or by group. Performers show shy daughter-in-law and shrew mother-in-law in their dances.

Dances of man, woman, solo, duet, ring (halay) type are performed both in mild and quick tempo in wedding parties.

Being big part of the dance music, dances of daily life are divided. Into dances for children, lyrical dances, dances dedicated to vegetable and animal kingdom, humorous dances, satirical dances and dances about social objection.

Play-dances for children widely spread. Dances such as "Banovsha" ("Violet"), "Bir qushum var(I have a bird")out of these are accompanied by words sung by pleasant voice and rhythmic movements. Main features of these play-dances are that they have recitative singing, poem declamation and choreographic elements.

Glorification of Azerbaijani nature occupies big place in dance music of daily life. For instance, Turaji, "Jeyrani", "Shalakho", "Kechimamasi", "Qafqazi", "Lala", "Qusarchay" and other dances are of pearls of Azerbaijani dance music. Each of these dances are distinguished for their unique melodical beauty and speciality.

Labor dances are closely related with labor process of people, different types of labor. Harvest, conveyance of crop, planting. gardening and garden labor are reflected in most of the labor dances. For instance, Araba" ("Cart") melody concerns to the labor dances.

There are some dances that they reflect several points of shepherds life: shepherd sees off his sheep to the pasture by shepherd music (this music is called "yedeklama"), Lambs are accompanied to their mother sheep by joyous dance melodies, instrumental call of shepherd. These melodies are usually played by pipe. Generally, shepherd melodies are also performed separate from labor process. So, "Choban raqsi" ("Dance of Shepherd") is related with joyful rest of shepherds. This dance is quick, melodical, has clear form and structure.

Heroic, military and sport song-dances form a special group. Such kind of dances display power, dexterity, determination and show that managing difficulties is possible.

Basis of military and heroic dances are the fight against foreign invaders and internal enemies. Popular heroic dances connected with Koroghlu are great chain. Music such as "Misri" (Misri is hint to Koroghlus sword), "Koroghlunun jighatayi", "Koroghlunun doshamasi", "Koroghlunun chaghirishi" ("koroghlus call") reflect life and struggle of Koroghlu and his brothers-in-arm. We may show examples "Qoch Ali" spread in Absheron, "Beshatilan" spread in Qarabagh, "Mujassama" spread in Lankaran to the dances created as the objection of our people to tyranny and oppression.

There are dances of different subjects among Azerbaijani popular dance music that are rich according to their structure and metro-rhythmic properties and according to melodical structure, they have individual features. We may show examples out of these dances that glorify separate persons: "Culgaz", "Gulustani", "Khalabaji" are related with womens name.

Dances such as "Jafari", "Arazi", "lIqari", "Sarvari", that are related with mens name, are dedicated to the persons who are distinguished by their labor and heroism, beauty, mind and spirit.

Several dance melodies are called correspond to the things that are used in these dances: "Qavalla raqs" ("Dance with tambourine"), "Yaylighim" ("My handkerchief"), "Nalbaki ila raqs" ("Dance with saucer"). Names of other groups are taken from dance movement "Suzma", "Kasma", "Atlanma", "Cholaghi". There are some dances names of which are related with things used in daily life: "Khoncha", "Dasmali", "Khakandazi", etc.

Azerbaijani dance folk lore is rich in the melodies that are closely connected with social-political and economical life of our people. Names of such kind of dances exactly indicate their addresses: "Vaghzali", "Aeroplani", "Express", "Torqsin" etc. Now there is tradition that "Vaghzali" melody accompanies moving of bride to bridegrooms house.

Dances of different character of the nations lived in Caucasus include in popular dance art of Azerbaijan. Out of these we may show "Lekuri" georgian dance (quiet duet), "Khorumi" - adzharian collective military dance (by accompaniment of drum), "Lazginka -quick men dance of people lived in mountains of Northern Caucasus.

Collective dances- yalli and ring (halay) have special place in the dance music.

B.Huseynli analyzed yalli and ring (halay) on the basis of their notes and found out their genre features. He paid attention to the synthetic character and principles of performance of yalli and on the basis of the examples he disclosed its instrumental, choreographic and vocal genres.

According to B,Huseynlis investigations, yalli and ring (halay) dances are of synthetic genre. In other words, they concentrate several genres on themselves. So, yalli concentrates genres of play, choreography, vocal and instrumental on itself. Performance of ring (halay) dances creates suite that is differed for its individual features. Chorus and instrumental accompaniment participate in performance of the dance.

Yalli with vocal accompaniment are relatively few. Yalli is usually. performed by accompaniment of instrumental ensemble - groups of zourna players. "Dona yalli".

"Kochari", "Jing-jing", "Qaladan qalaya", "Qaleyi", "Urfani", "Gopu", "Tanzara", "Haqishda" and others are of this type (6; p.9).

He investigated concrete types of yalli, For instance, plot, choreographic structure and ways of performance of "play-yalli" dont escape investigators attention, because it serves to explanation of the concrete content. For instance, "Kochari", "Qaz-qazi" (play-yaI1i), "Chop-Chopu" yalli are of this type (6; p.39)

At the same time, the author investigates second type of yalli, too. This type of yalli distinguishes for its youth, heroism and other emotional spirit and internal excitement. At the same time, rhythmic accompaniment formed by natural voice, such as clap, stamping and other movements compiled by different methods of these dances are disclosed as the result of emotional development.

There is also humorous yalli, "Qaz-qazi" is one of this type. This yalli consists of three types, is of play character, is performed by vocal and instrumental accompaniment. This yalli is intended for men. Role of leader in this yalli is more than other yalli. Leader holds sticks and punishes persons who disturbs rules of the dance or loses by these sticks.

Yalli usually consists of two or three parts. Repetition of this music in different tempos and various variants in turn is musical base of yalli. Tempo gradually changes from slow movement into quick movement. Mild tempo before quick tempo is main feature of yalli. We may show examples "Siyaqutu", "Qaz-qazi", "Jing-jing", "Khalafi", "Sharuri" and other yalli.

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